Home Health News States Are Getting Ready to Distribute COVID-19 Vaccines. What Do Their Plans Tell Us So Far?

States Are Getting Ready to Distribute COVID-19 Vaccines. What Do Their Plans Tell Us So Far?

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With the U.S. nonetheless within the midst of an escalating COVID-19 pandemic, attention to the race for a protected and efficient COVID-19 vaccine has intensified. What is obvious is that when vaccines do turn into out there, guaranteeing equitable and fast distribution to the U.S. inhabitants will present an unprecedented challenge. The Trump Administration, below Operation Warp Speed, has already bought prematurely lots of of million doses of a number of vaccine candidates, two of which have already demonstrated significant efficacy in Phase 3 scientific trials, and has begun planning for what would be the largest scale vaccination distribution effort ever undertaken within the U.S. This job will quickly be inherited by the incoming Biden Administration, which has established a COVID-19 Task Force and is already planning its response.

A restricted variety of COVID-19 vaccine doses might start to turn into out there as early as December, with extra doses out there over time. State, territorial, and native governments, who have already got main authority over routine vaccination, will play an more and more essential function within the distribution of those vaccines as extra doses turn into out there. In preparation, the federal authorities has asked the 64 jurisdictional immunization applications (all 50 states and DC, 8 U.S. territories and freely related Pacific states and 5 cities) that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funds and works with to develop COVID-19 vaccine distribution plans primarily based on an Interim Playbook. The Playbook consists of planning assumptions for jurisdictions to observe and requested data in 15 key areas (see Box). First drafts of those plans had been due by October 16.

In its Interim Playbook CDC supplied states with a set of planning assumptions as they developed their vaccine distribution plans. For instance, CDC outlined how vaccine distribution will seemingly proceed in phases:

  • Phase 1 – there may be an preliminary restricted provide of vaccine doses that will likely be prioritized for sure teams and distribution extra tightly managed and restricted variety of suppliers administering the vaccine;
  • Phase 2 – provide would improve and entry develop to embrace a broader set of the inhabitants, with extra suppliers concerned, and;
  • Phase 3 – there would seemingly be enough provide to meet demand and distribution could be built-in into routine vaccination applications.

CDC requested every state define its capacities for distributing COVID-19 vaccines throughout a broad set of 15 crucial areas: public health preparedness planning; organizational construction; plans for a phased method; figuring out and reaching crucial populations to be prioritized for vaccine entry; figuring out and recruiting suppliers to administer the vaccine; vaccine administration capability; allocating, distributing, and managing its stock of vaccines; storage and dealing with; gathering, monitoring, and reporting key measures of progress; second dose reminders; immunization data system necessities; growing a complete communications plan round vaccination; regulatory concerns; security monitoring; and program monitoring.

CDC steerage and federal oversight might evolve over the subsequent a number of months as vaccines turn into out there and distribution begins. The Biden marketing campaign and transition crew have deliberate for a extra distinguished function for the federal authorities within the U.S. COVID-19 response, which might seemingly embrace extra detailed federal steerage and a stronger federal hand in vaccine distribution, planning and implementation, at the same time as state and native jurisdictions will stay answerable for a lot of this effort. A crucial problem going through vaccine distribution efforts will likely be funding. To date, solely $200 million has been distributed to state, territorial, and native jurisdictions for vaccine preparedness, although it’s estimated that a minimum of $6-8 billion is required. President-elect Biden has stated his administration would search to invest $25 billion in manufacturing and distribution, which might require Congressional motion.

While the CDC has made executive summaries of those plans out there, there isn’t any central repository for the complete plans. We due to this fact sought to gather plans out there from all 50 states and DC, as of November 13, figuring out 47 full state plans in whole (linked within the “State Plans” tab). We then reviewed every plan to gauge how states described their vaccine distribution planning progress to date. Rather than assess each single part of those plans intimately we recognized widespread themes and considerations throughout the state plans, particularly specializing in what states reported concerning their progress within the following key areas:

  • figuring out precedence populations for vaccination of their state;
  • figuring out the community of suppliers of their state that will likely be answerable for administering vaccines;
  • growing the information assortment and reporting methods wanted to observe vaccine distribution progress; and
  • laying out a communications technique for the interval earlier than and through vaccination.

Where are States of their Planning?

Based on the data of their plans, states are in various phases of preparation for distributing a COVID-19 vaccine. While all have established a job power or planning committee to steer these efforts, which embrace representatives from completely different sectors, some have been planning for a number of months whereas different states’ planning efforts have started extra just lately. Some states have already begun the method of signing up suppliers to administer COVID-19 vaccines and building out current immunization registries, whereas others are nonetheless simply growing plans to do the identical. All reported, nevertheless, that these preliminary plans are to be thought-about drafts solely, to be up to date as extra data from the federal authorities and a few vaccine itself was out there. Specifically, nearly all cited the necessity to know which vaccine(s) could be licensed or authorised, and that they are going to look to additional federal steerage and suggestions earlier than some key choices are made, reminiscent of finalizing which people will likely be focused as precedence populations. Several raised considerations concerning the lack of visibility concerning vaccine distributions that will likely be made instantly from the federal authorities to sure suppliers of their states, reminiscent of massive pharmacy chains. These considerations had been raised earlier than the November 12 announcement by the federal authorities that it will likely be distributing future COVID-19 vaccines instantly to some impartial pharmacies and multi-state pharmacy chains throughout the U.S., in parallel to state efforts to recruit vaccination suppliers. States additionally mentioned classes discovered from earlier vaccine distribution efforts reminiscent of H1N1 pandemic influenza, together with the necessity to construct flexibility into distribution plans when provide is unpredictable and tailoring messages and outreach to numerous populations, that are sure to be challenges for a COVID-19 vaccine as properly. Finally, even recognizing the that states are in several states of readiness by way of their distribution planning efforts, it’s clear all state health departments are taking this duty significantly and are overseeing important efforts to make progress of their preparations.

Priority Populations

Each state could have to decide precisely who will likely be first in line to obtain the seemingly restricted variety of vaccine doses that will likely be made out there initially. In their plans, nearly each state studies they’re relying closely on steerage from the federal authorities to outline who these precedence populations are, drawing on suggestions from the National Academies of Medicine and in addition anticipating further steerage from the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Many states report they are going to form their prioritization plans utilizing locally-defined standards as properly. Every state plan highlights the next broad classes as being precedence populations for Phase 1 efforts: health care staff, essential staff, and people at excessive threat (older individuals and people with pre-disposing health threat elements). Most plans acknowledge (and CDC indicated in its steerage) that there’ll seemingly not be sufficient vaccines at first for all people recognized in these Phase 1 precedence teams. Even so, plans present that some states are a lot additional alongside in defining prioritization classes and enumerating the variety of those who fall into these classes. For instance:

  • Less than half (19 of 47, or 40%) of state plans reviewed embrace a numerical estimate of the variety of people in several precedence populations; the vast majority of states report they’re nonetheless growing their information sources and methodology to calculate the quantity of their precedence teams.
  • Some states report already growing particular estimates of the numbers of health care staff seemingly among the many first people focused for vaccination, whereas different states don’t embrace these estimates, or point out that they’re engaged on growing strategies to determine the numbers to be focused on this group.
  • A majority of states (25 of 47, or 53%) have a minimum of one point out of incorporating racial and/or ethnic minorities or health fairness concerns of their concentrating on of precedence populations. Some states count on to make racial and ethnic minorities an express precedence inhabitants group, whereas others report utilizing extra common or oblique strategies to accomplish that, reminiscent of via use of the social vulnerability index (as was beneficial by the NAM) and/or a Health Equity Team or Framework, as within the case of Arizona, California, Georgia, Louisiana, New Jersey, Ohio, and Vermont.


Each state will depend on a community of suppliers to administer the vaccines to people. These suppliers will seemingly embrace hospitals and medical doctors’ places of work, pharmacies, health departments, federally certified health facilities, and different clinics that play a task in administering vaccines at present. However, given the necessity to shortly vaccinate most residents, states will want to embrace further companions, reminiscent of long-term care services, within the community and can doubtlessly set up mass vaccination websites in public places like faculties and neighborhood facilities. Prior to distribution and administration of vaccines, states could have to determine, vet, and approve lots of to hundreds of companions and website places for vaccine supply. According to the draft plans, states are at completely different factors within the technique of figuring out these suppliers and increasing their community of suppliers wanted to ship vaccines to precedence inhabitants teams. States that require suppliers to take part in immunization registries or people who have already got most suppliers collaborating in these registries are additional alongside in growing their supplier networks, whereas different states report that they nonetheless want to start the method of enrolling suppliers.

  • Less than a 3rd (13 of 47, or 28%) of states’ plans present an estimate of the variety of vaccine suppliers within the state, and solely six present some estimate of the variety of suppliers by sort (although a few of these are restricted to just one supplier sort).
  • About half (24 of 47, or 51%) report an estimate of the variety of suppliers already collaborating of their immunization registries. A couple of states have additionally begun particular outreach to register as COVID-19 suppliers, though these efforts are of their starting phases. At the identical time, some states, notably rural states, increase considerations concerning the lack of personnel to perform vaccination in some areas, or how they are going to be ready to ship sufficiently small batches of vaccines to be distributed by rural suppliers who might solely be vaccinating a restricted variety of people.
  • Only a subset (12 of 47, or 26%) of state plans particularly point out or contemplate suppliers which are wanted to attain racial and ethnic minorities.
  • Across plans, the most typical forms of suppliers that states report nonetheless needing to attain out to or incorporate as COVID-19 vaccine suppliers embrace: tribal suppliers, long-term care services, correctional services, and different forms of grownup care suppliers.

Data Collection and Reporting

All states have an immunization registry of 1 variety or one other to observe vaccinations administered by suppliers of their state. These registries vary by way of their comprehensiveness and reporting performance. To incorporate the information assortment and reporting wants for COVID-19 vaccination, many states are counting on (and sometimes increasing) current state-level immunization registries, whereas different states are growing new methods or utilizing methods supplied by the federal authorities. From the data within the draft plans, it’s clear that some states are in a a lot better place by way of their information assortment and reporting capability for COVID-19 vaccines, whereas others have extra work to do to develop their methods, In addition, some widespread points have been raised by states of their plans.

  • Just over half (25 of 47, or 53% ) of state plans report having immunization registries/database methods in place which are described as being (a minimum of pretty) complete and dependable; within the different state plans that data is unclear. Most states report nonetheless having to develop or add performance to their current immunization registries to be ready for COVID-19 vaccine administration.
  • Most states report they are going to haven’t any points reporting the important thing information from their immunization registries to federal methods, although a minimum of fifteen states report that information sharing agreements with federal companions are nonetheless being reviewed or stay in course of.
  • Several states increase considerations concerning the capacity to report sure CDC-recommended information parts to federal methods or meet CDC time necessities for reporting. States additionally point out limitations in gathering race/ethnicity information on people vaccinated.
  • Virtually all states’ plans incorporate expectations and procedures to report any vaccine hostile occasions via federal reporting methods such because the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS).


Developing a communications plan earlier than and through COVID-19 vaccination will likely be crucial part of state planning. CDC requested that states define how they are going to proactively design communication plans that anticipate and reply to the wants and considerations of various inhabitants teams. This consists of the necessity to tackle misinformation and vaccine hesitancy, in addition to disaster communications. Some states’ plans have very detailed explanations of their method to communications throughout the vaccination phases, whereas others present little or no element. Additionally, some state plans acknowledge the necessity to develop focused messaging for susceptible populations, whereas others don’t.

  • About half (23 of 47, or 49%) of plans particularly point out racial/ethnic minorities or susceptible populations when discussing COVID-19 vaccine communication.
  • Just over a 3rd (18 of 47, or 38%) of state plans embrace a minimum of a point out of addressing vaccine misinformation however most of those states don’t present particular methods for countering misinformation.

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